Progressive orthodontic philosophy.

Harmony between the teeth, jaws & joints, face muscles, tongue and lips is essential for long-term smile symmetry, jaw function and stability.

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 GDO: goal directed orthodontics.

A systematised approach to orthodontic treatment: GDO removes the guesswork and facilitates predictable, stable results through accuracy in diagnosis of jaw position and functional occlusion. originally developed by Roth-williams.

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There are three distinct stages to GDO:

1. GDO Assessment and diagnosis

  • Detailed historical and clinical patient records

  • Articulator mounted study models of the teeth for more accurate diagnosis of vertical discrepancies and first tooth contact

  • Use of a condylar indicator to determine the health and 3D position of the condyles in relation to the articular disc and glenoid fossa of the temporo-mandibular joint complex aka stable joint position

  • Use of a panthogram to track mandibular positioning and movement important in finishing cases accurately


Articulator mounted study models


2. Function-focused treatment to minimise time spent in braces

  • Address any paranormal habits before irreversible treatment eg digit sucking, tongue positioning, speech, allergy or airway issues

  • Splinting to deprogram and relax the masticatory muscles to allow the condyles to seat into the fossae harmoniously, establishing stable joint position and treating any existing TMD prior to irreversible tooth movement

  • Metal bracing to align and position teeth precisely into a stable functional occlusion with aesthetically pleasing teeth alignment: typically equivalent to Angle’s Class I molar occlusion, canine guidance with anterior overbite and elimination of mediotrusive interferences


Before and towards end of treatment


3. defined goals of orthodontic treatment*

  1. Optimal facial appearance: proportional facial symmetry in both profile and frontal views according to reproducible lines and angles formed from distinct anatomical landmarks

  2. Optimal dental aesthetics: including following the five curves of the dental arch, coincident midlines, upper and lower teeth inter-digitation, roots centred within the alveolar ridge, sufficient clinical crown length and width

  3. Optimal functional occlusion: anterior overbite with proclined upper incisors occluding harmoniously with upright lower incisors, canine guidance, with as much molar tooth contact as possible in a Class I relationship

  4. Healthy periodontium: maintenance of adequate gingival thickness and attachment height generally while moving teeth for long-term periodontal health

  5. Healthy function of the TMJs: both mandibular condyles located in the most stable position. This most closely resembles centric relation (CR) - ‘the most superior location of the condyles seated in the centre of the articular discs against the eminentia and centred in the transverse plane’


Lateral ceph before (L) and after (R) treatment


*Adapted from textbook: “Roth Orthodontics: Philosophy and Case Reports” By Roth Williams Study Club in Japan 2004 pp8-12

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Download PDF articles of merit on GDO via the link below:


GDO consults.


Dr Geoffrey squires is available for opinions and consults by appointment for practitioners: in person or virtually online.

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For a different orthodontic perspective about the case before you, be it complex, a re-treatment or not progressing as planned.

Geoff can consult via video online with the secure exchange of case details, or in person at his Gladesville, Forster or Burnie rooms.

For an in-office consult contact reception.

To book a virtual appointment click the button below and follow the steps to upload the required information.

Dr Geoffrey Squires

Dr Geoffrey Squires


GDO training.

This progressive, holistic, evidence-based approach to orthodontics is a valuable addition to any dental practitioner’s toolkit.

Become a member of the General Practice Orthodontics Study Club (GPOSC) based in Sydney, NSW.

Subscribe below to be the first to know about upcoming GDO seminars and CPD events.

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 Practitioner referrals.


we’d love to work with you and your patients.

We’re always delighted to assess your patient’s orthodontic needs and collaborate with you to help best meet your own professional goals and your patient’s smile and function goals for life.

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Practitioner resources.


A progressively growing collection of articles, links and more.

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GDO for patients

By Dr Geoffrey Squires Specialist Orthodontist

Goal Oriented Treatment Domingo Martin PDF Screenshot

Goal oriented treatment

Dr Domingo Martin Specialist Orthodontist


Case for articulator mounted models Domingo Martin PDF screenshot

Orthodontic dental casts: the case for articulator mounting

Dr Domingo Martin Specialist Orthodontist